Unified analysis of finite-size error for periodic Hartree-Fock and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory
Despite decades of practice, finite-size errors in many widely used electronic structure theories for periodic systems remain poorly understood. For periodic systems using a general Monkhorst-Pack grid, there has been no rigorous analysis of the finite-size error in the Hartree-Fock theory (HF) and the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), which are the simplest wavefunction based method, and the simplest post-Hartree-Fock method, respectively. Such calculations can be viewed as a multi-dimensional integral discretized with certain trapezoidal rules. Due to the Coulomb singularity, the integrand has many points of discontinuity in general, and standard error analysis based on the Euler-Maclaurin formula gives overly pessimistic results. The lack of analytic understanding of finite-size errors also impedes the development of effective finite-size correction schemes. We propose a unified method to obtain sharp convergence rates of finite-size errors for the periodic HF and MP2 theories. Our main technical advancement is a generalization of the result of [Lyness, 1976] for obtaining sharp convergence rates of the trapezoidal rule for a class of non-smooth integrands. Our result is applicable to three-dimensional bulk systems as well as low dimensional systems (such as nanowires and 2D materials). Our unified analysis also allows us to prove the effectiveness of the Madelung-constant correction to the Fock exchange energy, and the effectiveness of a recently proposed staggered mesh method for periodic MP2 calculations [Xing, Li, Lin, 2021]. Our analysis connects the effectiveness of the staggered mesh method with integrands with removable singularities, and suggests a new staggered mesh method for reducing finite-size errors of periodic HF calculations.