Intermediate-scale quantum technologies provide unprecedented opportunities for scientific discoveries while posing the challenge of identifying important problems that can take advantage of them through algorithmic innovations. A major open problem in quantum many-body physics is the table-top generation and detection of emergent excitations analogous to gravitons -- the elusive mediators of gravitational force in a quantum theory of gravity. In solid-state materials, fractional quantum Hall phases are one of the leading platforms for realizing graviton-like excitations. However, their direct observation remains an experimental challenge. Here, we generate these excitations on the IBM quantum processor. We first identify an effective one-dimensional model that captures the geometric properties and graviton dynamics of fractional quantum Hall states. We then develop an efficient, optimal-control-based variational quantum algorithm to simulate geometric quench and the subsequent graviton dynamics, which we successfully implement on the IBM quantum computer. Our results open a new avenue for studying the emergence of gravitons in a new class of tractable models that lend themselves to direct implementations on the existing quantum hardware.