In this paper we propose an accurate, and computationally efficient method for incorporating adaptive spatial resolution into weakly-compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. Particles are adaptively split and merged in an accurate manner. Critically, the method ensures that the number of neighbors of each particle is optimal, leading to an efficient algorithm. A set of background particles is used to specify either geometry-based spatial resolution, where the resolution is a function of distance to a solid body, or solution-based adaptive resolution, where the resolution is a function of the computed solution. This allows us to simulate problems using particles having length variations of the order of 1:250 with much fewer particles than currently reported with other techniques. The method is designed to automatically adapt when any solid bodies move. The algorithms employed are fully parallel. We consider a suite of benchmark problems to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. We then consider the classic problem of the flow past a circular cylinder at a range of Reynolds numbers and show that the proposed method produces accurate results with a significantly reduced number of particles. We provide an open source implementation and a fully reproducible manuscript.