The photonic Temporal Mode (TM) represents a possible candidate for the delivery of viable multidimensional quantum communications. However, relative to other multidimensional quantum information carriers such as the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM), the TM has received less attention. Moreover, in the context of the emerging quantum internet and satellite-based quantum communications, the TM has received no attention. In this work, we remedy this situation by considering the traversal through the satellite-to-Earth channel of single photons encoded in TM space. Our results indicate that for anticipated atmospheric conditions the photonic TM offers a promising avenue for the delivery of high-throughput quantum communications from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver. In particular, we show how these modes can provide for improved multiplexing performance and superior quantum key distribution in the satellite-to-Earth channel, relative to OAM single-photon states. The levels of TM discrimination that guarantee this outcome are outlined and implications of our results for the emerging satellite-based quantum internet are discussed.