Attention-based neural networks such as the Vision Transformer (ViT) have recently attained state-of-the-art results on many computer vision benchmarks. Scale is a primary ingredient in attaining excellent results, therefore, understanding a model's scaling properties is a key to designing future generations effectively. While the laws for scaling Transformer language models have been studied, it is unknown how Vision Transformers scale. To address this, we scale ViT models and data, both up and down, and characterize the relationships between error rate, data, and compute. Along the way, we refine the architecture and training of ViT, reducing memory consumption and increasing accuracy the resulting models. As a result, we successfully train a ViT model with two billion parameters, which attains a new state-of-the-art on ImageNet of 90.45% top-1 accuracy. The model also performs well on few-shot learning, for example, attaining 84.86% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet with only 10 examples per class.
- Pub Date:
- June 2021
- Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition;
- Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence;
- Computer Science - Machine Learning
- Xiaohua, Alex, and Lucas contributed equally