Approximate polymorphisms
Abstract
For a function $g\colon\{0,1\}^m\to\{0,1\}$, a function $f\colon \{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}$ is called a $g$polymorphism if their actions commute: $f(g(\mathsf{row}_1(Z)),\ldots,g(\mathsf{row}_n(Z))) = g(f(\mathsf{col}_1(Z)),\ldots,f(\mathsf{col}_m(Z)))$ for all $Z\in\{0,1\}^{n\times m}$. The function $f$ is called an approximate polymorphism if this equality holds with probability close to $1$, when $Z$ is sampled uniformly. We study the structure of exact polymorphisms as well as approximate polymorphisms. Our results include:  We prove that an approximate polymorphism $f$ must be close to an exact polymorphism;  We give a characterization of exact polymorphisms, showing that besides trivial cases, only the functions $g = \mathsf{AND}, \mathsf{XOR}, \mathsf{OR}, \mathsf{NXOR}$ admit nontrivial exact polymorphisms. We also study the approximate polymorphism problem in the listdecoding regime (i.e., when the probability equality holds is not close to $1$, but is bounded away from some value). We show that if $f(x \land y) = f(x) \land f(y)$ with probability larger than $s_\land \approx 0.815$ then $f$ correlates with some lowdegree character, and $s_\land$ is the optimal threshold for this property. Our result generalize the classical linearity testing result of Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld, that in this language showed that the approximate polymorphisms of $g = \mathsf{XOR}$ are close to XOR's, as well as a recent result of Filmus, Lifshitz, Minzer and Mossel, showing that the approximate polymorphisms of AND can only be close to AND functions.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 May 2021
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.2106.00093
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2106.00093
 Bibcode:
 2021arXiv210600093C
 Keywords:

 Computer Science  Discrete Mathematics;
 Mathematics  Combinatorics
 EPrint:
 43 pages