The Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies are difficult to measure at large angular scales. In this paper, we present a new analysis of the \Planck\ High Frequency Instrument data that brings the cosmological part and its major foreground signal close to the detector noise. The solar dipole signal, induced by the motion of the solar system with respect to the CMB, is a very efficient tool to calibrate a detector or a set of detectors with high accuracy. In this work, the solar dipole signal is used to extract corrections of the frequency maps offsets reducing significantly uncertainties. The solar dipole parameters are refined together with the improvement of the high frequency foregrounds, and of the CMB large scales cosmological anisotropies. The stability of the solar dipole parameters is a powerful way to control the galactic foregrounds removal in the component separation process. It is used to build a model for Spectral Energy Distribution spatial variations of the interstellar dust emission. The knowledge of these variations will help future CMB analyses in intensity, and also in polarization to measure faint signal related to the optical reionization depth and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the primordial anisotropies. The results of this work are: improved solar dipole parameters, a new interstellar dust model, and a large scale cosmological anisotropies map.