Are Work Zones and Connected Automated Vehicles Ready for a Harmonious Coexistence? A Scoping Review and Research Agenda
The recent advent of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) is expected to transform the transportation system. CAV technologies are being developed rapidly and they are foreseen to penetrate the market at a rapid pace. On the other hand, work zones (WZs) have become common areas on highway systems as a result of the increasing construction and maintenance activities. The near future will therefore bring the coexistence of CAVs and WZs which makes their interaction inevitable. WZs expose all vehicles to a sudden and complex geometric change in the roadway environment, something that may challenge many of CAV navigation capabilities. WZs however also impose a space contraction resulting in adverse traffic impacts, something that legitimately calls for benefiting from the highly efficient CAV functions. CAVs should be able to reliably traverse WZ geometry and WZs should benefit from CAV intelligent functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the key concepts, opportunities, and challenges of deploying CAV systems at WZs. The reviewed subjects include traffic performance and behaviour, technologies and infrastructure, and regulatory considerations. Eighteen CAV mobility, safety, and environmental concepts and functions were distributed over the WZ area which was subdivided into five segments: further upstream, approach area, queuing area, WZ activity, and termination area. In addition, among other topics reviewed and discussed are detection of WZ features, smart traffic control devices, various technologies at connected WZs, cross-border harmonization, liability, insurance, and privacy. The paper also provides a research agenda with a list of research needs supported by experts rating and inputs. The paper aims to provide a bird eye view, but with necessary details that can benefit researchers, practitioners, and transportation agencies.