Amorphous dielectric materials have been known to host two-level systems (TLSs) for more than four decades. Recent developments on superconducting resonators and qubits enable detailed studies on the physics of TLSs. In particular, measuring the loss of a device over long time periods (a few days) allows us to investigate stochastic fluctuations due to the interaction between TLSs. We measure the energy relaxation time of a frequency-tunable planar superconducting qubit over time and frequency. The experiments show a variety of stochastic patterns that we are able to explain by means of extensive simulations. The model used in our simulations assumes a qubit interacting with high-frequency TLSs, which, in turn, interact with thermally activated low-frequency TLSs. Our simulations match the experiments and suggest the density of low-frequency TLSs is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of high-frequency ones.
Physical Review B
- Pub Date:
- September 2021
- Quantum Physics;
- Condensed Matter - Superconductivity
- Submitted for publication. 13 pages, 5 figures, and 3 tables. Code available at https://gitlab.com/DQMLab/qubitfluctuations