Steady-state phonon occupation of electromagnetically-induced-transparency cooling: Higher-order calculations
Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) cooling has established itself as one of the most widely used cooling schemes for trapped ions during the past 20 years. Compared to its alternatives, EIT cooling possesses important advantages such as a tunable effective linewidth, a very low steady-state phonon occupation, and applicability for multiple ions. However, the existing analytic expression for the steady-state phonon occupation of EIT cooling is limited to the zeroth order of the Lamb-Dicke parameter. Here we extend such calculations and present the explicit expression to the second order of the Lamb-Dicke parameter. We discuss several implications of our refined formula and are able to resolve certain difficulties in existing results.