Assessing the Utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Flood Studies and Land Use/Land Cover Analysis Through Case Studies in Nigeria and the USA
Globally, there has been a rise in geologic hazards such as flooding. A rise, which has often been attributed to climate change. First world countries especially the United States of America have well-structured ground and space-based flood monitoring systems through which data are obtained to provide real-time flood prediction and warnings to stakeholders. However, developing regions of the world mostly suffer the devastating effect of flooding due to a lack of adequate flood monitoring systems to provide accurate flood warnings. Land-use changes associated with an increase in impervious surface resulting from vegetation loss and/or replacement of flood plains and wetland with pavements are known to increase flood intensity. Hence, knowing how land cover changes affect floods in an area is therefore crucial to mitigating it and so is knowing the flood hazard level for these areas. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data (GRACE) storage-based Flood Potential Index (FPI) at correctly predicting floods in Nigeria with a focus on its efficacy at predicting past floods in the country. A newly derived Water Budget-based FPI was assessed and compared to the GRACE-FPI in terms of its capability to predict floods in the Mississippi River basin in the USA. Finally, the influence of changes in LULC on flooding was assessed for Lagos State using satellite datasets.
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- Geological engineering; Geographic information science; Remote sensing