Uncovering recent progress in nanostructured light-emitters for information and communication technologies
Semiconductor nanostructures with low dimensionality like quantum dots and quantum dashes are one of the best attractive and heuristic solutions for achieving high performance photonic devices. When one or more spatial dimensions of the nanocrystal approach the de Broglie wavelength, nanoscale size effects create a spatial quantization of carriers leading to a complete discretization of energy levels along with additional quantum phenomena like entangled-photon generation or squeezed states of light among others. This article reviews our recent findings and prospects on nanostructure based light emitters where active region is made with quantum-dot and quantum-dash nanostructures. Many applications ranging from silicon-based integrated technologies to quantum information systems rely on the utilization of such laser sources. Here, we link the material and fundamental properties with the device physics. For this purpose, spectral linewidth, polarization anisotropy, optical nonlinearities as well as microwave, dynamic and nonlinear properties are closely examined. The paper focuses on photonic devices grown on native substrates (InP and GaAs) as well as those heterogeneously and epitaxially grown on silicon substrate. This research pipelines the most exciting recent innovation developed around light emitters using nanostructures as gain media and highlights the importance of nanotechnologies on industry and society especially for shaping the future information and communication society.