Topological and geometrical aspects of band theory
Abstract
This paper provides a pedagogical introduction to recent developments in geometrical and topological band theory following the discovery of graphene and topological insulators. Amusingly, many of these developments have a connection to contributions in highenergy physics by Dirac. The review starts by a presentation of the Dirac magnetic monopole, goes on with the Berry phase in a twolevel system and the geometrical/topological band theory for Bloch electrons in crystals. Next, specific examples of tightbinding models giving rise to lattice versions of the Dirac equation in various space dimension are presented: in 1D (Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) and Rice–Mele models), 2D (graphene, boron nitride, Haldane model) and 3D (Weyl semimetals). The focus is on topological insulators and topological semimetals. The latter have a Fermi surface that is characterized as a topological defect. For topological insulators, the two alternative view points of twisted fiber bundles and of topological textures are developed. The minimal mathematical background in topology (essentially on homotopy groups and fiber bundles) is provided when needed. Topics rarely reviewed include: periodic versus canonical Bloch Hamiltonian (basis I/II issue), Zak versus Berry phase, the vanishing electric polarization of the SSH model and Dirac insulators.
 Publication:

Journal of Physics: Materials
 Pub Date:
 July 2021
 DOI:
 10.1088/25157639/abf0b5
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2012.11941
 Bibcode:
 2021JPhM....4c4007C
 Keywords:

 topological band theory;
 graphene;
 topological insulators;
 Weyl semimetals;
 Dirac monopole;
 Berry phase;
 Condensed Matter  Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics
 EPrint:
 review, 69 pages, 23 figures, 2 tables, final version