Previously, the basic laws and equations of electrodynamics, atomic nuclei, elementary particles theory and gravitation theory were derived from the equations of compressible oscillating ether. In this work, the theory of atomic structure for all chemical elements is constructed. A formula for the values of the energy levels of the electrons of an atom, which are the values of the energies of binding of electrons with the nucleus of an atom in the ground unexcited state, is derived from the equations of the ether. Based on experimental data on the ionization energies of atoms and ions, it is shown that the sequence of values of the energy levels of electrons has jumps, exactly corresponding to the periods of the table of chemical elements. It is concluded that it is precisely these jumps, and not quantum-mechanical rules, prohibitions and postulates that determine the periodicity of the properties of chemical elements. Ethereal correction of the table of chemical elements is presented which returns it to the form proposed by D.I. Mendeleev.