In previous work, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation has been associated with the metrics of general relativity and shown to be a generalized Dirac equation for quantum mechanics. This lends itself to a natural definition of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. This theory is now further developed to show that a free spinless quantum particle moving with velocity v obeys the standard wave equation of electro-magnetism. We also discuss the implications for the zitterbewegung problem and its relationship to isotropy. Moreover, it is also shown that for the theory to be consistent, the momentum defined by the Hamilton-.!acobi function presupposes the existence of a universal parameter internal to the system. In the case of particles with mass this invariant can be defined by dX = dt/m(t) where t has the units of time and m = m(t) has the units of mass.