Cosmology and the massive photon frequency shift in the StandardModel Extension
Abstract
The total red shift z might be recast as a combination of the expansion red shift and a static shift due to the energymomentum tensor nonconservation of a photon propagating through ElectroMagnetic (EM) fields. If massive, the photon may be described by the de BroglieProca (dBP) theory which satisfies the Lorentz(Poincaré) Symmetry (LoSy) but not gaugeinvariance. The latter is regained in the StandardModel Extension (SME), associated with LoSy Violation (LSV) that naturally dresses photons of a mass. The nonconservation stems from the vacuum expectation value of the vector and tensor LSV fields. The final colour (red or blue) and size of the static shift depend on the orientations and strength of the LSV and EM multiple fields encountered along the path of the photon. Turning to cosmology, for a zero Ω_{Λ} energy density, the discrepancy between luminosity and red shift distances of SNeIa disappears thanks to the recasting of z. Massive photons induce an effective dark energy acting `optically' but not dynamically.
 Publication:

European Physical Journal C
 Pub Date:
 January 2021
 DOI:
 10.1140/epjc/s10052020087033
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2011.12608
 Bibcode:
 2021EPJC...81....4S
 Keywords:

 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 High Energy Physics  Phenomenology;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 Version accepted by Eur. Phys. J. C