The studies of wide-gap semiconductor materials using electron-beam induced current (EBIC) method are reviewed. The main methods for measuring the diffusion length of nonequilibrium carriers in semiconductor structures using the EBIC method in a scanning electron microscope are analyzed. The experimental results of measuring the diffusion lengths in GaN, Ga2O3, 4H-SiC, and ZnO are considered. The reliability of the obtained values is discussed. The EBIC possibilities for detecting dislocations and studying their recombination activity are demonstrated. The strategy for achieving high lateral resolution at EBIC measurements in crystals with submicron diffusion length is discussed. Examples of the influence of irradiation of wide-gap semiconductor materials by a low-energy electron beam on their electrical and optical properties are shown. The results of studying the recombination-enhanced dislocation glide in GaN and 4H-SiC under their electron-beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope are presented.