Investigations of Sizes and Dynamical Motions of Solar Photospheric Granules by a Novel Granular Segmenting Algorithm
Granules observed in the solar photosphere are believed to be convective and turbulent, but the physical picture of the granular dynamical process remains unclear. Here we performed an investigation of granular dynamical motions of full length scales based on data obtained by the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope. We developed a new granule segmenting method, which can detect both small faint and large bright granules. A large number of granules were detected, and two critical sizes, 265 and 1420 km, were found to separate the granules into three length ranges. The granules with sizes above 1420 km follow Gaussian distribution, and demonstrate flat in flatness function, which shows that they are non-intermittent and thus are dominated by convective motions. Small granules with sizes between 265 and 1420 km are fitted by a combination of power-law function and Gauss function, and exhibit nonlinearity in flatness function, which reveals that they are in the mixing motions of convection and turbulence. Mini granules with sizes below 265 km follow the power-law distribution and demonstrate linearity in flatness function, indicating that they are intermittent and strongly turbulent. These results suggest that a cascade process occurs: large granules break down due to convective instability, which transports energy into small ones; then turbulence is induced and grows, which competes with convection and further causes the small granules to continuously split. Eventually, the motions in even smaller scales enter in a turbulence-dominated regime.