Multiple Electron Acceleration Instances during a Series of Solar Microflares Observed Simultaneously at X-Rays and Microwaves
Even small solar flares can display a surprising level of complexity regarding their morphology and temporal evolution. Many of their properties, such as energy release and electron acceleration can be studied using highly complementary observations at X-ray and radio wavelengths. We present X-ray observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) of a series of GOES A3.4-B1.6 class flares observed on 2013 April 23. The flares, as seen in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet, originated from multiple locations within active region NOAA 11726. A veritable zoo of different radio emissions between 1 GHz and 2 GHz was observed cotemporally with the X-ray flares. In addition to broadband continuum emission, broadband short-lived bursts and narrowband spikes, indicative of accelerated electrons, were observed. However, these sources were located up to 150″ away from the flaring X-ray sources but only some of these emissions could be explained as signatures of electrons that were accelerated near the main flare site. For other sources, no obvious magnetic connection to the main flare site could be found. These emissions likely originate from secondary acceleration sites triggered by the flare, but may be due to reconnection and acceleration completely unrelated to the cotemporally observed flare. Thanks to the extremely high sensitivity of the VLA, not achieved with current X-ray instrumentation, it is shown that particle acceleration happens frequently and at multiple locations within a flaring active region.
The Astrophysical Journal
- Pub Date:
- December 2021
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
- accepted for publication in ApJ