A Dynamical Measurement of the Disk Mass in Elias 227
Abstract
Recent multiwavelength Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the protoplanetary disk orbiting around Elias 227 revealed a twoarmed spiral structure. The observed morphology, together with the young age of the star and the disktostar mass ratio estimated from dustcontinuum emission, make this system a perfect laboratory to investigate the role of selfgravity in the early phases of star formation. This is particularly interesting if we consider that gravitational instabilities could be a fundamental first step for the formation of planetesimals and planets. In this Letter, we model the rotation curve obtained by CO data of Elias 227 with a theoretical rotation curve, including both the disk selfgravity and the star contribution to the gravitational potential. We compare this model with a purely Keplerian one and with a simple powerlaw function. We find that (especially for the ^{13}CO isotopologue) the rotation curve is better described by considering not only the star, but also the disk selfgravity. We are thus able to obtain for the first time a dynamical estimate of the disk mass of 0.08 0.04 M and the star mass of 0.46 0.03 M (in the more general case), the latter being comparable with previous estimates. From these values, we derive that the disk is 17 of the star mass, meaning that it could be prone to gravitational instabilities. This result would strongly support the hypothesis that the two spiral arms are generated by gravitational instabilities.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal
 Pub Date:
 June 2021
 DOI:
 10.3847/20418213/abfe6a
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2104.09530
 Bibcode:
 2021ApJ...914L..27V
 Keywords:

 Protoplanetary disks;
 Gravitational instability;
 1300;
 668;
 Astrophysics  Earth and Planetary Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 14 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication on ApJL