Demographics of Exoplanets in Binaries. I. Architecture of S-type Planetary Systems Revealed by the Radial-velocity Sample
Although the sample of exoplanets in binaries has been greatly expanded, the sample heterogeneity and observational bias are obstacles toward a clear figure of exoplanet demographics in the binary environment. To overcome the obstacles, we conduct a statistical study that focuses on S-type (circumstellar) planetary systems detected by the radial-velocity (RV) method. We try to account for observational biases by estimating, from available RV data, planet detection efficiencies for each individual system. Our main results are as follows. (1) Single (resp. multiple) planetary systems are mostly found in close (wide) binaries with separation a B < (>) ~ 100-300 au. (2) In binaries, single and multiple-planet systems are similar in 1D distributions of mass and period as well as eccentricity (in contrast to the "eccentricity dichotomy" found in single star systems) but different in the 2D period-mass diagram. Specifically, there is a rectangular-shaped gap in the period-mass diagram of single-planet systems but not for multiples. This gap also depends on binary separation and is more prominent in close binaries. (3) There is a rising upper envelope in the period-mass diagram for planets in wide binaries as well as in single stars but not in close binaries. More specifically, there is a population of massive short-period planets in close binaries but almost absent in wide binaries or single stars. We suggest that enhanced planetary migration, collision and/or ejection in close binaries could be the potential underlying explanation for these three features.