We consider pure square spin ice, that is, square ice, where only nearest neighbors are coupled. The gauge-free duality between the perpendicular and collinear structure leads to a natural description in terms of topological currents and charges as the relevant degrees of freedom. That, in turn, can be expressed via a continuous field theory where the discrete spins are subsumed into entropic interactions among charges and currents. This approach produces structure factors, correlations, and susceptibilities for spins, monopoles, and currents. It also generalizes the height formalism of the disordered ground state to non-zero temperature. The framework can be applied to the zoology of recent experimental results, especially realizations on quantum annealers, and can be expanded to include longer range interactions.
- Pub Date:
- October 2021
- Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics;
- Condensed Matter - Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics
- 18 pages, double column, 9 Figures, 99 references, preprint. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2004.03735