Re-examination of effects of ALD high-k materials on defect reduction in SiGe metal-oxide-semiconductor interfaces
We study the impact of the atomic layer deposition high-k gate insulators on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) interface properties of Si0.78Ge0.22 gate stacks with TiN gate electrodes and the physical origins of the reduction in MOS interface defects. The SiGe MOS interface properties of TiN/Y2O3, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 gate stacks are compared over a wide range of annealing temperatures. It is found that the lowest interface trap density (Dit) is obtained by TiN/Y2O3 stacks with post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 450 °C among the gate stacks with other gate insulators. Moreover, it is revealed that less amount of GeOx in the interfacial layer leads to lower Dit and that the Y2O3 stacks yield further reduction in Dit during PMA at 450 °C. These results can be explained by the reduction in distorted Ge-O bond densities in GeOx in ILs by scavenging and annealing effects during PMA and the suppression of Ge dangling bond generation by incorporating Y atoms into GeOx during PMA at 450 °C.