Context. Characterizing the evolution of protoplanetary disks is necessary to improve our understanding of planet formation. Constraints on both dust and gas are needed to determine the dominant disk dissipation mechanisms.
Aims: We aim to compare the disk dust masses in the Chamaeleon II (Cha II) star-forming region with other regions with ages between 1 and 10 Myr.
Methods: We use ALMA band 6 observations (1.3 mm) to survey 29 protoplanetary disks in Cha II. Dust mass estimates are derived from the continuum data.
Results: Out of our initial sample of 29 disks, we detect 22 sources in the continuum, 10 in 12CO, 3 in 13CO, and none in C18O (J = 2−1). Additionally, we detect two companion candidates in the continuum and 12CO emission. Most disk dust masses are lower than 10 M⊕, assuming thermal emission from optically thin dust. Including non-detections, we derive a median dust mass of 4.5 ± 1.5 M⊕ from survival analysis. We compare consistent estimations of the distributions of the disk dust mass and the disk-to-stellar mass ratios in Cha II with six other low mass and isolated star-forming regions in the age range of 1-10 Myr: Upper Sco, CrA, IC 348, Cha I, Lupus, and Taurus. When comparing the dust-to-stellar mass ratio, we find that the masses of disks in Cha II are statistically different from those in Upper Sco and Taurus, and we confirm that disks in Upper Sco, the oldest region of the sample, are statistically less massive than in all other regions. Performing a second statistical test of the dust mass distributions from similar mass bins, we find no statistical differences between these regions and Cha II.
Conclusions: We interpret these trends, most simply, as a sign of decline in the disk dust masses with time or dust evolution. Different global initial conditions in star-forming regions may also play a role, but their impact on the properties of a disk population is difficult to isolate in star-forming regions lacking nearby massive stars.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- September 2021
- protoplanetary disks;
- stars: formation;
- circumstellar matter;
- stars: variables: T Tauri;
- Herbig Ae/Be;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
- Accepted for publication in A&