Polytropic wind solutions via the Complex Plane Strategy
Abstract
Solartype stars generate spherical winds, which are pressure driven flows, that start subsonic, reach the sound speed at the sonic point and transition to supersonic flows. The sonic point, mathematically corresponds to a singularity of the system of differential equations describing the flow. In the problem of an isothermal wind, the Parker solution provides an exact analytical expression tuned appropriately so that the singularity does not affect the solution. However, if the wind is polytropic it is not possible to find an analytical solution and a numerical approach needs to be followed. We study solutions of spherical winds that are driven by pressure within a gravitational field. The solutions pass smoothly from the critical point and allow us to study the impact of the changes of the polytropic index to these winds. We explore the properties of these solutions as a function of the polytropic index and the boundary conditions used. We apply the Complex Plane Strategy (CPS) and we obtain numerically solutions of polytropic winds. This allows us to avoid the singularity appearing in the equations through the introduction complex variables and integration on the complex plane. Applying this method, we obtain solutions with physical behaviour at the stellar surface, the sonic point and at large distances from the star. We further explore the role of the polytropic index in the flow and the effect of massloss rate and temperature on the solution. We find that the increase of polytropic index as well as the decrease of flow parameter both yield to a smoother velocity profile and lower velocities and shifts the transition point from subsonic to supersonic behaviour further from the star. Finally, we verify that the increasing of coronal temperature yields higher wind velocities and a weaker dependence on polytropic index.
 Publication:

Astronomy and Computing
 Pub Date:
 July 2021
 DOI:
 10.1016/j.ascom.2021.100491
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2111.14150
 Bibcode:
 2021A&C....3600491K
 Keywords:

 Polytropes;
 Complex Plane Strategy;
 Astrophysical winds;
 Astrophysics  Solar and Stellar Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics;
 Physics  Fluid Dynamics
 EPrint:
 Article history to Astronomy and Computing: Submitted 26 December 2020, Accepted 5 August 2021, Available online 11 August 2021