Tests of General Relativity with Binary Black Holes from the second LIGOVirgo GravitationalWave Transient Catalog
Abstract
Gravitational waves enable tests of general relativity in the highly dynamical and strongfield regime. Using events detected by LIGOVirgo up to 1 October 2019, we evaluate the consistency of the data with predictions from the theory. We first establish that residuals from the bestfit waveform are consistent with detector noise, and that the low and highfrequency parts of the signals are in agreement. We then consider parametrized modifications to the waveform by varying postNewtonian and phenomenological coefficients, improving past constraints by factors of ${\sim}2$; we also find consistency with Kerr black holes when we specifically target signatures of the spininduced quadrupole moment. Looking for gravitationalwave dispersion, we tighten constraints on Lorentzviolating coefficients by a factor of ${\sim}2.6$ and bound the mass of the graviton to $m_g \leq 1.76 \times 10^{23} \mathrm{eV}/c^2$ with 90% credibility. We also analyze the properties of the merger remnants by measuring ringdown frequencies and damping times, constraining fractional deviations away from the Kerr frequency to $\delta \hat{f}_{220} = 0.03^{+0.38}_{0.35}$ for the fundamental quadrupolar mode, and $\delta \hat{f}_{221} = 0.04^{+0.27}_{0.32}$ for the first overtone; additionally, we find no evidence for postmerger echoes. Finally, we determine that our data are consistent with tensorial polarizations through a templateindependent method. When possible, we assess the validity of general relativity based on collections of events analyzed jointly. We find no evidence for new physics beyond general relativity, for black hole mimickers, or for any unaccounted systematics.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 October 2020
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2010.14529
 Bibcode:
 2020arXiv201014529T
 Keywords:

 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 Astrophysics  High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
 EPrint:
 24 pages + appendices, 19 figures