Introducing the NewHorizon simulation: galaxy properties with resolved internal dynamics across cosmic time
Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are increasing their level of realism by considering more physical processes, having more resolution or larger statistics. However, one usually has to either sacrifice the statistical power of such simulations or the resolution reach within galaxies. Here, we introduce the NewHorizon project where a zoom-in region of $\sim(16\,\rm Mpc)^3$, larger than a standard zoom-in region around a single halo, embedded in a larger box is simulated at high resolution. A resolution of up to 34 pc, typical of individual zoom-in resimulated halos is reached within galaxies, allowing the simulation to capture the multi-phase nature of the interstellar medium and the clumpy nature of the star formation process in galaxies. In this introductory paper, we present several key fundamental properties of galaxies and of their black holes including the galaxy mass function, the cosmic star formation rate, the galactic metallicities, the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, the stellar-to-halo mass relation, the galaxy sizes, their stellar kinematics and morphology, the gas content within galaxies and its kinematics, and the black hole mass and spin properties over time. The various scaling relations are broadly reproduced by NewHorizon with some differences with the standard observables. Due to its exquisite spatial resolution, NewHorizon captures the inefficient process of star formation in galaxies, which evolve over time from being more turbulent, gas-rich and star-bursting at high redshift. These high redshift galaxies are also more compact, and are more elliptical and clumpier until the level of internal gas turbulence decays enough to allow for the formation of discs. The NewHorizon simulation gives access to a broad range of galaxy physics at low-to-intermediate stellar masses, a regime that will become accessible in the near future through surveys such as the LSST.