The Effect of Environment on Type Ia Supernovae in the Dark Energy Survey Three-Year Cosmological Sample
Analyses of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found puzzling correlations between their standardised luminosities and host galaxy properties: SNe Ia in high-mass, passive hosts appear brighter than those in lower-mass, star-forming hosts. We examine the host galaxies of SNe Ia in the Dark Energy Survey three-year spectroscopically-confirmed cosmological sample, obtaining photometry in a series of 'local' apertures centred on the SN, and for the global host galaxy. We study the differences in these host galaxy properties, such as stellar mass and rest-frame $U-R$ colours, and their correlations with SN Ia parameters including Hubble residuals. We find all Hubble residual steps to be $>3\sigma$ in significance, both for splitting at the traditional sample median and for the step of maximum significance. For stellar mass, we find a maximal local step of $0.098\pm0.018$ mag; $\sim 0.03$ mag greater than the largest global stellar mass step in our sample ($0.070 \pm 0.017$ mag). When splitting at the sample median, differences between local and global $U-R$ steps are small, both $\sim 0.08$ mag, but are more significant than the global stellar mass step ($0.057\pm0.017$ mag). We split the data into sub-samples based on SN Ia light curve parameters: stretch ($x_1$) and colour ($c$), finding that redder objects ($c > 0$) have larger Hubble residual steps, for both stellar mass and $U-R$, for both local and global measurements, of $\sim0.14$ mag. Additionally, the bluer (star-forming) local environments host a more homogeneous SN Ia sample, with local $U-R$ r.m.s. scatter as low as $0.084 \pm 0.017$ mag for blue ($c < 0$) SNe Ia in locally blue $U-R$ environments.