Acoustic-gravity wave propagation characteristics in 3D radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere
There has been tremendous progress in the degree of realism of three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere in the past decades. Four of the most frequently used numerical codes are Bifrost, CO5BOLD, MANCHA3D, and MURaM. Here we test and compare the wave propagation characteristics in model runs from these four codes by measuring the dispersion relation of acoustic-gravity waves at various heights. We find considerable differences between the various models. The height dependence of wave power, in particular of high-frequency waves, varies by up to two orders of magnitude between the models, and the phase difference spectra of several models show unexpected features, including $\pm180^\circ$ phase jumps.