Spatial sampling of MEG and EEG revisited: From spatial-frequency spectra to model-informed sampling
In this paper, we analyze spatial sampling of electro- (EEG) magnetoencephalography (MEG), where the electric or magnetic field is typically sampled on a curved surface such as the scalp. Using simulated measurements, we study the spatial-frequency content in EEG as well as in on- and off-scalp MEG. The analysis suggests that on-scalp MEG would generally benefit from three times more samples than EEG or off-scalp MEG. Based on the theory of Gaussian processes and experimental design, we suggest an approach to obtain sampling locations on surfaces that are optimal with respect to prior assumptions. Additionally, the approach allows to control, e.g., the uniformity of the sampling locations in the grid. By simulating the performance of grids constructed with different priors, we show that for a low number of spatial samples, model-informed non-uniform sampling can be beneficial. For a large number of samples, uniform sampling grids yield nearly the same total information as the model-informed grids.