Shorter sleep is known to be negatively associated with academic performance. However, this result has mostly been found in homogenous samples (e.g., students from one university) or when using relative measures of academic performance, such as grade point average. Consequently, the relationship between academic performance and sleep patterns at the population level is not well understood. In this paper, we examined the relationship between academic performance as measured by a standardized test and sleep patterns using data from a Russian panel study (N = 4,400) that was nationally representative for one age cohort (20-21 years old). In addition to self-reported sleep patterns, the data set contained information about participants' online activities over a period of up to 10 years, which allowed us to track the evolution of this relationship over time. We found that high academic performance was associated with shorter sleep, later bedtime, and increased online activity at night. The relationship between high academic performance and online activity at night was stable over a period of 5 years. Our findings suggest that the relationship between academic performance and sleep patterns can be more complex than previously believed and that high performance may be achieved at the expense of individual well-being.