This review covers experimental results of evaporative lithography and analyzes existing mathematical models of this method. Evaporating droplets and films are used in different fields, such as cooling of heated surfaces of electronic devices, diagnostics in health care, creation of transparent conductive coatings on flexible substrates, and surface patterning. A method called evaporative lithography emerged after the connection between the coffee ring effect taking place in drying colloidal droplets and naturally occurring inhomogeneous vapor flux densities from liquid--vapor interfaces was established. Essential control of the colloidal particle deposit patterns is achieved in this method by producing ambient conditions that induce a nonuniform evaporation profile from the colloidal liquid surface. Evaporative lithography is part of a wider field known as "evaporative-induced self-assembly" (EISA). EISA involves methods based on contact line processes, methods employing particle interaction effects, and evaporative lithography. As a rule, evaporative lithography is a flexible and single-stage process with such advantages as simplicity, low price, and the possibility of application to almost any substrate without pretreatment. Since there is no mechanical impact on the template in evaporative lithography, the template integrity is preserved in the process. The method is also useful for creating materials with localized functions, such as slipperiness and self-healing. For these reasons, evaporative lithography attracts increasing attention and has a number of noticeable achievements at present. We also analyze limitations of the approach and ways of its further development.