PPG2ABP: Translating Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Signals to Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP) Waveforms using Fully Convolutional Neural Networks
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most severe causes of mortality, taking a heavy toll of lives annually throughout the world. The continuous monitoring of blood pressure seems to be the most viable option, but this demands an invasive process, bringing about several layers of complexities. This motivates us to develop a method to predict the continuous arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform through a non-invasive approach using photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals. In addition we explore the advantage of deep learning as it would free us from sticking to ideally shaped PPG signals only, by making handcrafted feature computation irrelevant, which is a shortcoming of the existing approaches. Thus, we present, PPG2ABP, a deep learning based method, that manages to predict the continuous ABP waveform from the input PPG signal, with a mean absolute error of 4.604 mmHg, preserving the shape, magnitude and phase in unison. However, the more astounding success of PPG2ABP turns out to be that the computed values of DBP, MAP and SBP from the predicted ABP waveform outperforms the existing works under several metrics, despite that PPG2ABP is not explicitly trained to do so.