The three types of normal sequential effect algebras
Abstract
A sequential effect algebra (SEA) is an effect algebra equipped with a sequential product operation modeled after the Lüders product $(a,b)\mapsto \sqrt{a}b\sqrt{a}$ on C*algebras. A SEA is called normal when it has all suprema of directed sets, and the sequential product interacts suitably with these suprema. The effects on a Hilbert space and the unit interval of a von Neumann or JBW algebra are examples of normal SEAs that are in addition convex, i.e. possess a suitable action of the real unit interval on the algebra. Complete Boolean algebras form normal SEAs too, which are convex only when $0=1$. We show that any normal SEA $E$ splits as a direct sum $E\equiv E_b\oplus E_c \oplus E_{ac}$ of a complete Boolean algebra $E_b$, a convex normal SEA $E_c$, and a newly identified type of normal SEA $E_{ac}$ we dub purely almostconvex. Along the way we show, among other things, that a SEA which contains only idempotents must be a Boolean algebra; and we establish a spectral theorem using which we settle for the class of normal SEAs a problem of Gudder regarding the uniqueness of square roots. After establishing our main result, we propose a simple extra axiom for normal SEAs that excludes the seemingly pathological aconvex SEAs. We conclude the paper by a study of SEAs with an associative sequential product. We find that associativity forces normal SEAs satisfying our new axiom to be commutative, shedding light on the question of why the sequential product in quantum theory should be nonassociative.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 April 2020
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2004.12749
 Bibcode:
 2020arXiv200412749W
 Keywords:

 Quantum Physics;
 Mathematics  Operator Algebras
 EPrint:
 20 pages. V2: Journal version with several textual improvements