The exploitation of smart-contract vulnerabilities can have catastrophic consequences such as the loss of millions of pounds worth of crypto assets. Formal verification can be a useful tool in identifying vulnerabilities and proving that they have been fixed. In this paper, we present a formalisation of Solidity and the Ethereum blockchain using the Solid language and its blockchain; a Solid program is obtained by explicating/desugaring a Solidity program. We make some abstractions that over-approximate the way in which Solidity/Ethereum behave. Based on this formalisation, we create Solidifier: a bounded model checker for Solidity. It translates Solid into Boogie, an intermediate verification language, that is later verified using Corral, a bounded model checker for Boogie. Unlike much of the work in this area, we do not try to find specific behavioural/code patterns that might lead to vulnerabilities. Instead, we provide a tool to find errors/bad states, i.e. program states that do not conform with the intent of the developer. Such a bad state, be it a vulnerability or not, might be reached through the execution of specific known code patterns or through behaviours that have not been anticipated.
- Pub Date:
- February 2020
- Computer Science - Programming Languages;
- Computer Science - Cryptography and Security;
- Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science;
- Computer Science - Software Engineering;