Brighter-fatter Effect in Near-infrared Detectors—III. Fourier-domain Treatment of Flat Field Correlations and Application to WFIRST
Weak gravitational lensing has emerged as a leading probe of the growth of cosmic structure. However, the shear signal is very small and accurate measurement depends critically on our ability to understand how non-ideal instrumental effects affect astronomical images. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will fly a focal plane containing 18 Teledyne H4RG-10 near-infrared detector arrays, which present different instrument calibration challenges from previous weak lensing observations. Previous work [Paper I: Hirata & Choi, PASP, 132, 014501 (2020); and Paper II: Choi & Hirata, PASP, 132, 014502 (2020)] has shown that correlation functions of flat field images, including cross-correlations between different time slices that are enabled by the non-destructive read capability of the infrared detectors, are effective tools for disentangling linear and nonlinear inter-pixel capacitance (IPC) and the brighter-fatter effect (BFE). Here we present a Fourier-domain treatment of the flat field correlations, which allows us to expand the previous formalism to all orders in IPC, BFE, and classical nonlinearity. We show that biases in simulated flat field analyses in Paper I are greatly reduced through the use of this formalism. We then apply this updated formalism to flat field data from three WFIRST flight candidate detectors, and explore the robustness to variations in the analysis. We find that the BFE is present in all three detectors, and that its contribution to the flat field correlations dominates over the nonlinear IPC, in accordance with the results from Paper II on a development detector. The magnitude of the BFE is such that the effective area of a pixel is increased by (3.54 ± 0.03) × 10-7 for every electron deposited in a neighboring pixel (sensor chip assembly [SCA] 20829, statistical error, not IPC-deconvolved). We compare IPC maps from flat field autocorrelation measurements to those obtained from the single pixel reset method and find a median difference of 0.113% for SCA 20829. After further diagnosis of this difference, we ascribe it largely to an additional source of cross-talk, the vertical trailing pixel effect, and recommend further work to develop a model for this effect. These results represent a significant step toward calibration of the non-ideal effects in WFIRST detectors.