The aim of this study was to develop a fetal cartilage-derived progenitor cell (FCPC) based cartilage gel through self-assembly for cartilage repair surgery, with clinically useful properties including adhesiveness, plasticity, and continued chondrogenic remodeling after transplantation. Characterization of the gels according to in vitro self-assembly period resulted in increased chondrogenic features over time. Adhesion strength of the cartilage gels were significantly higher compared to alginate gel, with the 2-wk group showing a near 20-fold higher strength (1.8 ± 0.15 kPa vs. 0.09 ± 0.01 kPa, p < 0.001). The in vivo remodeling process analysis of the 2 wk cultured gels showed increased cartilage repair characteristics and stiffness over time, with higher integration-failure stress compared to osteochondral autograft controls at 4 weeks (p < 0.01). In the nonhuman primate investigation, cartilage repair scores were significantly better in the gel group compared to defects alone after 24 weeks (p < 0.001). Cell distribution analysis at 24 weeks showed that human cells remained within the transplanted defects only. A self-assembled, FCPC-based cartilage gel showed chondrogenic repair potential as well as adhesive properties, beneficial for cartilage repair.