Breakdown of the Einstein’s Equivalence Principle for a quantum body
Abstract
We review our recent theoretical results about inequivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy for a composite quantum body at a macroscopic level. In particular, we consider macroscopic ensembles of the simplest composite quantum bodies — hydrogen atoms. Our results are as follows. For the most ensembles, the Einstein’s Equivalence Principle is valid. On the other hand, we discuss that for some special quantum ensembles — ensembles of the coherent superpositions of the stationary quantum states in the hydrogen atoms (which we call Gravitational demons) — the Equivalence Principle between passive gravitational mass and energy is broken. We show that, for such superpositions, the expectation values of passive gravitational masses are not related to the expectation values of energies by the famous Einstein’s equation, i.e. mg≠ E c2. Possible experiments at the Earth’s laboratories are briefly discussed, in contrast to the numerous attempts and projects to discover the possible breakdown of the Einstein’s Equivalence Principle during the space missions.
 Publication:

Modern Physics Letters A
 Pub Date:
 June 2020
 DOI:
 10.1142/S0217732320300104
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2006.14073
 Bibcode:
 2020MPLA...3530010L
 Keywords:

 Equivalence Principle;
 mass–energy equivalence;
 quantum gravity;
 04.60.m;
 04.80.Cc;
 04.62.+v;
 Quantum gravity;
 Experimental tests of gravitational theories;
 Quantum field theory in curved spacetime;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology
 EPrint:
 Brief review