In this work, we investigate Newtonian cosmologies with a time-varying gravitational constant, G(t). We examine whether such models can reproduce the low-redshift cosmological observations without a cosmological constant, or any other sort of explicit dark energy fluid. Starting with a modified Newton's second law, where G is taken as a function of time, we derive the first Friedmann-Lemaître equation, where a second parameter, G*, appears as the gravitational constant. This parameter is related to the original G from the second law, which remains in the acceleration equation. We use this approach to reproduce various cosmological scenarios that are studied in the literature, and we test these models with low-redshift probes: type-Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic chronometers, taking also into account a possible change in the supernovae intrinsic luminosity with redshift. As a result, we obtain several models with similar χ2 values as the standard ΛCDM cosmology. When we allow for a redshift-dependence of the SNIa intrinsic luminosity, a model with a G exponentially decreasing to zero while remaining positive (model 4) can explain the observations without acceleration. When we assume no redshift-dependence of SNIa, the observations favour a negative G at large scales, while G* remains positive for most of these models. We conclude that these models offer interesting interpretations to the low-redshift cosmological observations, without needing a dark energy term.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Pub Date:
- October 2020
- cosmology: observations;
- cosmology: theory;
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
- Matching the version published at MNRAS, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa2310