A novel dual chemosensor for selective heavy metal ions Al3+, Cr3+ and its applicable cytotoxic activity, HepG2 living cell images and theoretical studies
A new simple 'dual' chemosensor (3,3'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(quinoxaline-6,3-diyl))bis (phenylmethanone) L14, for distinguishing Al3+ and Cr3+ has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The designed compound revealed certified selectivity and sensitivity among a fluorescence enhancement to Al3+ and quenching to Cr3+ over commonly coexisting cations (such as Cu2+, Hg2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, Ag+, Ni2+, Zr2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Sr2+, Cd2+, Sn2+, Bi3+ and Zn2+) in DMF-H2O (4/1, v/v). These are reversible with the addition of EDTA. The detection limit for Al3+/Cr3+ by L14 reached the 0.3 μM and 0.5 μM level. The binding process confirmed via UV-Vis, fluorescence measurements, 1H NMR, FE-SEM with EDS and color mapping and DFT calculation. Further, the applicability of the probe was used to the cytotoxic activity, and fluorescent sensors in overseeing intracellular Al3+/Cr3+ in HepG2 cells also demonstrated.