Motivated by the notion of Lagrangian multiforms, which provide a Lagrangian formulation of integrability, and by the results of the authors on the role of covariant Hamiltonian formalism for integrable field theories, we propose the notion of Hamiltonian multiforms for integrable 1 + 1-dimensional field theories. They provide the Hamiltonian counterpart of Lagrangian multiforms and encapsulate in a single object an arbitrary number of flows within an integrable hierarchy. For a given hierarchy, taking a Lagrangian multiform as the starting point, we provide a systematic construction of a Hamiltonian multiform based on a generalization of techniques of covariant Hamiltonian field theory. This also produces two other important objects: a symplectic multiform and the related multi-time Poisson bracket. They reduce to a multisymplectic form and the related covariant Poisson bracket if we restrict our attention to a single flow in the hierarchy. Our framework offers an alternative approach to define and derive conservation laws for a hierarchy. We illustrate our results on three examples: the potential Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy, the sine-Gordon hierarchy (in light-cone coordinates), and the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur hierarchy.
Journal of Mathematical Physics
- Pub Date:
- December 2020
- Mathematical Physics;
- High Energy Physics - Theory;
- Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems
- v3: Improved discussion after Proposition 2.2, with changes until the end of Section 2.3. Lemma 2.4 was added. References updated and typos corrected. Accepted for publication in J. Math. Phys