Quantum yield estimation for an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device from photon counting test data
Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) allow for subelectron effective read noise and thus for imaging at extremely low flux levels. In the ultraviolet, quantum yield creates an additional source of stochastic gain variation, which can be difficult to quantify using existing techniques. We propose a method for measuring the quantum yield gain of these devices, independent of existing methods, using images that are part of the existing test regimen for new EMCCDs. With this method, we were able to recover the quantum yield used to create simulated images within an accuracy of ∼5 % and the method provided consistent results with test images after only minor modifications. However, the measured quantum yield remains anomalously low, consistent with other measurements on Teledyne-e2v devices. We hypothesize that this discrepancy is due to lateral transfer of secondary electrons between pixels at the surface explained by the band structure and crystal geometry of typical silicon wafers used in array detector manufacture.