A plume of vaporized sediments and basement rocks was ejected to the top of atmosphere when a 10-15 km asteroid impacted on Yucatan in the Southern Gulf of Mexico about 66 million years ago. The Chicxulub impact-vapor plume emitted a flash of light that had clues on the chemistry and degree of vaporization of the target surface material. Here we simulate the asteroid impact by vaporizing marine carbonate sediments cored in the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole in the Chicxulub crater using an intense infrared laser pulse. We investigate two sedimentary layers that represent the most dominant mineral phases of the target sequence: carbonates and sulfates. Their main constituents are 86% calcite and 74% anhydrite, respectively. The laser-induced vapor plumes were produced from each layer in a background simulated late Cretaceus atmosphere (0.16% CO2, 30% O2, and 69.84% N2). Time-resolved spectroscopic analyses from the laser-induced plumes were carried out using experimental and synthetic spectra. The vapor plumes had similar temperatures (≥7800 K) at 1 μs and their spectra showed similar emissions. The spectra contained the following lines in nm: Ca+ (mostly at 393.4 and 396.9 with less prominence at 370.6 and 373.7), Ca (422.7, 430.3, 443.6, 445.5, 527.0, 560.3, 616.4, and 657.3), N (746.8 and 821.6), O (777.7), and C (794.5). Molecular bands were not conspicuous which indicated complete vaporization of the target material by the laser pulse. The contribution of the granitic basement was examined using synthetic spectra. The expected emissions according to their intensities are: Na (589.6), Ca+ (393.4), Al (396.2, 309.3), Ca+ (396.9), Ca (422.7), Na (819.5) and K (766.5, 769.9). The results suggest that the emission corresponded to Ca+ and Ca originated mostly from the volatilization of the marine sediments, and Na, Al, and K from the basement rocks. The physico-chemical evolution of the Chicxulub impact-vapor plume could be deduced by deciphering the temperature and electron density from the emission lines of Ca and Ca+. These physical parameters can be used in gas dynamic models to predict the fluxes and nature of gases, vapors and mineral phases that were introduced into the atmosphere and better assess their impact to the environment and the biosphere.