Shortcuts to adiabaticity for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate via exact solutions of the generalized Ermakov equation
Shortcuts to adiabatic expansion of the effectively one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded in the harmonic-oscillator (HO) trap are investigated by combining techniques of variational approximation and inverse engineering. Piecewise-constant (discontinuous) intermediate trap frequencies, similar to the known bang-bang forms in the optimal-control theory, are derived from an exact solution of a generalized Ermakov equation. Control schemes considered in the paper include imaginary trap frequencies at short time scales, i.e., the HO potential replaced by the quadratic repulsive one. Taking into regard the BEC's intrinsic nonlinearity, results are reported for the minimal transfer time, excitation energy (which measures deviation from the effective adiabaticity), and stability for the shortcut-to-adiabaticity protocols. These results are not only useful for the realization of fast frictionless cooling, but also help us to address fundamental problems of the quantum speed limit and thermodynamics.