Context. HD 13724 is a nearby solar-type star at 43.48 ± 0.06 pc hosting a long-period low-mass brown dwarf detected with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph as part of the historical CORALIE radial-velocity search for extra-solar planets. The companion has a minimum mass of 26.77-2.2+4.4 MJup and an expected semi-major axis of ~240 mas making it a suitable target for further characterisation with high-contrast imaging, in particular to measure its inclination, mass, and spectrum and thus establish its substellar nature.
Aims: Using high-contrast imaging with the SPHERE instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we are able to directly image a brown dwarf companion to HD 13724 and obtain a low-resolution spectrum.
Methods: We combine the radial-velocity measurements of CORALIE and HARPS taken over two decades and high-contrast imaging from SPHERE to obtain a dynamical mass estimate. From the SPHERE data we obtain a low-resolution spectrum of the companion from Y to J band, as well as photometric measurements from IRDIS in the J, H, and K bands.
Results: Using high-contrast imaging with the SPHERE instrument at the VLT, we report the first images of a brown dwarf companion orbiting the host star HD 13724. It has an angular separation of 175.6 ± 4.5 mas and an H-band contrast of 10.61 ± 0.16 mag, and using the age estimate of the star to be ~1 Gyr gives an isochronal mass estimate of ~44 MJup. By combining radial-velocity and imaging data we also obtain a dynamical mass of 50.5-3.5+3.3 MJup. Through fitting an atmospheric model, we estimate a surface gravity of logg = 5.5 and an effective temperature of 1000 K. A comparison of its spectrum with observed T dwarfs estimates a spectral type of T4 or T4.5, with a T4 object providing the best fit.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- March 2020
- planetary systems;
- binaries: visual;
- techniques: radial velocities;
- techniques: high angular resolution;
- brown dwarfs;
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
- 11 pages, Accepted to A&