This chapter describes a number of signal-processing and statistical-modeling techniques that are commonly used to calculate likelihood ratios in human-supervised automatic approaches to forensic voice comparison. Techniques described include mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) feature extraction, Gaussian mixture model - universal background model (GMM-UBM) systems, i-vector - probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (i-vector PLDA) systems, deep neural network (DNN) based systems (including senone posterior i-vectors, bottleneck features, and embeddings / x-vectors), mismatch compensation, and score-to-likelihood-ratio conversion (aka calibration). Empirical validation of forensic-voice-comparison systems is also covered. The aim of the chapter is to bridge the gap between general introductions to forensic voice comparison and the highly technical automatic-speaker-recognition literature from which the signal-processing and statistical-modeling techniques are mostly drawn. Knowledge of the likelihood-ratio framework for the evaluation of forensic evidence is assumed. It is hoped that the material presented here will be of value to students of forensic voice comparison and to researchers interested in learning about statistical modeling techniques that could potentially also be applied to data from other branches of forensic science.
- Pub Date:
- December 2019
- Statistics - Applications;
- Computer Science - Sound;
- Electrical Engineering and Systems Science - Audio and Speech Processing
- Morrison, G.S., Enzinger, E., Ramos, D., Gonz\'alez-Rodr\'iguez, J., Lozano-D\'iez, A. (2020). Statistical models in forensic voice comparison. In Banks, D.L., Kafadar, K., Kaye, D.H., Tackett, M. (Eds.) Handbook of Forensic Statistics (Ch. 20, pp. 451-497). Boca Raton, FL: CRC