Despite their successes, deep neural networks may make unreliable predictions when faced with test data drawn from a distribution different to that of the training data, constituting a major problem for AI safety. While this has recently motivated the development of methods to detect such out-of-distribution (OoD) inputs, a robust solution is still lacking. We propose a new probabilistic, unsupervised approach to this problem based on a Bayesian variational autoencoder model, which estimates a full posterior distribution over the decoder parameters using stochastic gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo, instead of fitting a point estimate. We describe how information-theoretic measures based on this posterior can then be used to detect OoD inputs both in input space and in the model's latent space. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.