Collective ratchet transport generated by particle crowding under asymmetric sawtooth-shaped static potential
In this study, we describe the ratchet transport of particles under static asymmetric potential with periodicity. Ratchet transport has garnered considerable attention due to its potential for developing smart transport techniques on a micrometer scale. In previous studies, either particle self-propulsion or time varying potential was introduced to realize unidirectional transport. Without utilizing these two factors, we experimentally demonstrate ratchet transport through particle interactions during crowding. Such ratchet transport induced by particle interaction has not been experimentally demonstrated thus far, although some theoretical studies had suggested that particle crowding enhances ratchet transport. In addition, we constructed a model for such transport in which the potential varies depending on the particle density, which agrees well with our experimental results. This study can accelerate the development of transport techniques on a micrometer scale.