The cosmic microwave background (CMB) encodes information about the content and evolution of the universe. The presence of light, weakly interacting particles impacts the expansion history of the early universe, which alters the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. In this way, current measurements of the CMB place interesting constraints on the neutrino energy density and mass, as well as on the abundance of other possible light relativistic particle species. We present the status of an on-going 1500 sq. deg. survey with the SPT-3G receiver, a new mm-wavelength camera on the 10-m diameter South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT-3G camera consists of 16,000 superconducting transition edge sensors, a 10x increase over the previous generation camera, which allows it to map the CMB with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and angular resolution. We highlight projected constraints on the abundance of sterile neutrinos and the sum of the neutrino masses for the SPT-3G survey, which could help determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.