Mathematical epidemiological models have a broad use, including both qualitative and quantitative applications. With the increasing availability of data, large-scale quantitative disease spread models can nowadays be formulated. Such models have a great potential, e.g., in risk assessments in public health. Their main challenge is model parameterization given surveillance data, a problem which often limits their practical usage. We offer a solution to this problem by developing a Bayesian methodology suitable to epidemiological models driven by network data. The greatest difficulty in obtaining a concentrated parameter posterior is the quality of surveillance data; disease measurements are often scarce and carry little information about the parameters. The often overlooked problem of the model's identifiability therefore needs to be addressed, and we do so using a hierarchy of increasingly realistic known truth experiments. Our proposed Bayesian approach performs convincingly across all our synthetic tests. From pathogen measurements of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in Swedish cattle, we are able to produce an accurate statistical model of first-principles confronted with data. Within this model we explore the potential of a Bayesian public health framework by assessing the efficiency of disease detection and -intervention scenarios.